Hematuria: Causes of blood within the urine


4. Glomerulonephritis

Glomerulonephritis can be a cause of blood in the urine. Glomerulonephritis refers to the inflammation of the glomeruli, which are structures in the kidney responsible for filtering waste and removing excess fluids from the blood. It can be acute (sudden) or chronic (long term). Glomerulonephritis can have a variety of causes, including bacterial or viral infections (eg strep throat, HIV, hepatitis C), autoimmune diseases (eg lupus), vasculitis (inflammation of blood vessels), and systemic diseases such as diabetes and high blood pressure.

Other symptoms of glomerulonephritis can include swelling (edema) of the hands and face, excess protein in the urine (proteinuria), decreased urination, fatigue, and high blood pressure. A kidney biopsy is almost always necessary to confirm a diagnosis of glomerulonephritis. Depending on the cause, treatment may include antibiotics, antihypertensives, steroids and / or plasmapharesis (mechanical removal of antibodies from the blood). Complications of glomerulonephritis can include acute or chronic kidney failure, high blood pressure, and nephrotic syndrome (high protein levels in the urine, low protein levels in the blood, high cholesterol levels, and swelling).

5. Enlargement of the prostate

An enlarged prostate, also known as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), can be a cause of blood in the urine in men. BPH is a common problem in older men and represents a non-cancerous enlarged prostate. The gland is located just below the bladder and the urethra, which carries urine from the bladder, passes through the center of the gland. As men age, the gland enlarges, causing compression of the urethra and partial blockage of urine flow.

Other symptoms of an enlarged prostate can include frequent urination, difficulty starting to urinate, dribbling, and a feeling that the bladder is not completely emptied. The diagnosis of BPH can be made by a prostate specific antigen (PSA) blood test and a digital rectal examination (DRE) by a doctor. PSA is generally high in BPH. The DRE assesses the size and shape of the prostate. BPH is usually treated with oral medications or a surgery called TURP (transurethral resection of the prostate).

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